The relationship between science and technology, in modern times, is inseparable on the one hand, and is almost regarded as the same category; on the other hand, the two have different tasks, goals and realization processes, and develop relatively independently in their interconnection. This is the whole of dialectical unity. The task of science is to reveal the nature and inner laws of nature by answering “what” and “why” questions, with the purpose of understanding nature. The task of technology is to meet the actual needs of society’s production and life by answering the questions of “what to do” and “how to do”, and the purpose is to transform nature. Science is mainly manifested in the form of knowledge, while technology has the form of materialization. Science provides the possibility of materialization, and technology provides the reality of materialization.
A scientific breakthrough is called discovery, and technological innovation is called invention. Science is the research that creates knowledge, and technology is the research that comprehensively utilizes knowledge for needs. The evaluation of science mainly depends on its creativity and truth, and the evaluation of technology first depends on whether it is feasible and whether it can bring economic benefits. The difference between science and technology: Science and technology are different in function and role, mainly in: different purposes and tasks, different research content, different forms and evaluation standards of research results, different development processes, different product attributes.
One: Science is a research activity to create knowledge. It mainly solves the problem of understanding the world, and answers “what” and “why”. Technology is the method, technique, and corresponding material means of invention and creative operation, The answer is “what to do” and “how to do”. Second: Science is the activity of discovering and exploring unknown activities with the nature of free research; technology is the activity of engaging in invention and comprehensively utilizing various knowledge for creation and practice. Third: Scientific creation is the main knowledge; technology is different. In addition to appearing in the form of knowledge, it also has a certain material form. Fourth: The role of science in the economy is implied, not so sure, and sometimes it takes a long time to play; the role of technology in the economy is more certain, and the relationship is more direct. The link between science and technology: Science and technology are always inextricably linked.
They are interdependent, interpenetrating and transforming each other. Science is the theoretical foundation of technological development, and technology is the means of scientific development. Science can often inspire us to propose new and previously unthinkable characteristics of things, which in turn leads to new technologies. New technologies often require new insights, and new research often requires new technologies. People use technology to invent more and more new instruments and new technologies, which has promoted scientific research in all aspects. Technology not only provides tools for scientific research but also motivates theoretical research and provides direction.
With the rise of the modern scientific revolution and technological revolution, science and technology are becoming more and more integrated. The closer the connection between technology and science. The emergence and development of many emerging technologies, especially high technologies, come directly from the achievements of modern science. Science is the sublimation of technology, and technology is the extension of science. The inherent unification and coordinated development of science and technology have become an important feature of today’s “big science.” Technological invention requires the support of the scientific theory.
Scientific discovery is the theoretical basis of the technological invention; science proposes the possibility of development, and technology becomes “possible” into “reality”; technological invention promotes scientific progress, and scientific achievements promote technological progress. Modern science and technology are interdependent, promote each other, and transform each other. The inherent unity and coordinated development of modern science and technology have become a basic feature of today’s “big science.” In fact, the concept of “big science” already includes the concept of technology.
Only advanced science can advance technology and develop the economy. Of course, the advancement of technology and production has, in turn, promoted the development of science and provided better means and conditions for scientific development, especially the technical means and financial conditions for scientific research. As a result, science, technology, and production have formed a mutually beneficial virtuous circle of relations, creating a good environment for modern science and technology and rapid economic and social development.