In 1945, President Roosevelt’s scientific adviser Vannevar Bush formally proposed the concept of “technology transfer” in a “Science-Endless Frontier” report to the President. In 1964, the first United Nations Conference on Trade Development defined technology transfer as a collective term for technology input and technology output.
“Transfer” in technology transfer includes two meanings: location transfer and power transfer. Among them, location transfer includes movement from one region to another in the country, and also includes cross-border movement. Power transfer refers to the behavior of technology holders who transfer all ownership or use rights of technology to technology demanders.
So far, there has not been an internationally recognized and uniform interpretation of the concept and connotation of technology transfer. The “Encyclopedia of World Economy” interprets technology transfer as the transfer of people, things and information that constitute the three elements of technology. The United Nations “Code of Action for International Technology Transfer” interprets technology transfer as systematic knowledge transferred about manufacturing a certain product, applying a certain technological process or providing a certain service, that is, transferring systematic knowledge from a producer of knowledge to a user of knowledge, Its main channels are licensing trade, technical consultation, technical services, and assistance.
Generally speaking, knowledge can be divided into two types: one is public knowledge without property rights, such as scientific knowledge; the other is technical knowledge with property rights. The dissemination of public knowledge belongs to the scope of education and science popularization, and technology transfer mainly refers to the transfer of patents and information that can produce economic benefits.
The “Shenzhen Special Economic Zone Technology Transfer Regulations”, which came into effect on June 1, 2013, interpreted technology transfer as “transferring the system knowledge of manufacturing a certain product, applying a certain process, or providing a service from technology supply to technology demand side Including transfer, transplantation, introduction, use, exchange and promotion of scientific and technological achievements, information, and capabilities (collectively referred to as technological achievements). ”
Many documents and media reports in China often talk about “transformation of achievements”, and rarely mention “technology transfer” that is commonly used in the world. The scientific and technological achievements produced by technological development have practical value for follow-up experiments, development, application, and promotion until the formation of new products, new processes, new materials, and development of new industries. Compared with the transformation of scientific and technological achievements, the extension and connotation of technology transfer are greater. Technology transfer is a two-way flow between multiple factors according to market rules, including technology, information, talents, and funds.